1. NASA's Cassini Reveals New Sculpting in Saturn Rings  NASA Planetary Science
  2. What's happening inside Saturn's rings? The Cassini mission dove between them to find out  CNN
  3. Yes, Saturn's Rings Are Awesome — NASA's Cassini Showed Us Just HOW Awesome.  Space.com
  4. Saturn's moons may have 'sculpted' its famous rings, new study suggests  USA TODAY
  5. The origin of Saturn's rings and moons  Science Magazine
  6. View full coverage on Google News

Scientists are still puzzling over the detailed structure and dynamic nature of Saturn's rings, nearly two years after the end of NASA's Cassini mission.

Yes, Saturn's Rings Are Awesome — NASA's Cassini Showed Us Just HOW Awesome. | Space

Images collected during Cassini's superclose orbits in 2017 are giving scientists new insight into the complex workings of the rings.Images collected during Cassini's superclose orbits in 2017 are giving scientists new insight into the complex workings of the rings.

NASA's Cassini Reveals New Sculpting in Saturn Rings | NASA

![Figure][1]</img> Data from the Cassini mission ([ 1 ][2]–[ 3 ][3]) suggest that Saturn's rings and small moons, such as Pandora and Prometheus, formed in the past two billion years. PHOTO: NASA/JPL/SPACE SCIENCE INSTITUTE Saturn's rings consist of vast numbers of small icy particles that frequently collide with each other. Within Saturn's Roche limit (that is, closer to Saturn's center than twice Saturn's physical radius R S), the icy particles disperse and form rings, whereas outside the Roche limit, they grow through pairwise collisions to form moons. The formation of Saturn's rings and moons should thus be closely related. On pages 1054, 1053, and 1052 of this issue, respectively, Tiscareno et al. ([ 1 ][2]), Buratti et al. ([ 2 ][4]), and Iess et al. ([ 3 ][3]) report results from the Cassini mission's ring-grazing orbit and Grand Finale observations, which reveal the detailed structure of the rings and associated moons. The results strongly suggest that Saturn's rings are much younger than Saturn itself and provide important clues to the origin of the rings and moons. Saturn has a total of eight mid-size and large moons (diameters greater than 200 km), which orbit the planet in coplanar and circular orbits. The diameters of the mid-size moons, from Mimas to Rhea, increase monotonically from 400 km to 1500 km (see the figure). Titan, the largest satellite with a diameter of 5150 km, has a separate orbit from the inner moons at r = 20 R S. On the other hand, small, irregular-shaped moons such as Pandora, Prometheus, and Epimetheus (ring moons with diameters of 10 to 100 km, see the images) exist in the outermost part of the rings near the Roche limit. Estimated bulk densities show that the large moons have a range of different rock-to-ice ratios, whereas the ring particles are mostly composed of water ice. Two main models have been proposed to explain the formation of Saturn's moons (see the figure). They may have accreted either from small, kilometer-sized bodies in a circumplanetary gas disk (model 1) ([ 4 ][5], [ 5 ][6]) or from icy particles that diffused out from a massive ring (model 2) ([ 6 ][7], [ 7 ][8]). According to another recent model, they may have reaccreted from debris generated by collisions between first-generation moons that formed by either of the two main models ([ 8 ][9]). Saturn formed through accretion of H/He gas from the solar nebula onto a rock/ice core. During accretion, a gas disk is likely to have formed around Saturn through which gas flowed onto Saturn's surface. In the disk, icy and rocky grains condensed. Model 1 assumes that the grains accumulated into kilometer-sized bodies, which occasionally collided with each other to form moons in the disk. Some moons could migrate through interaction with the gas disk into the interior of the Roche limit. Because the density difference between ice and rock means that the Roche limit radius is larger by ∼40% for ice than for rock, the icy mantle of the migrating moon(s) may have been stripped first, providing icy particles for the rings ([ 9 ][10]). Numerical simulations of model 1 have been able to reproduce both Titan and the rings ([ 5 ][6], [ 9 ][10]), but not the inner moons. On the other hand, a compilation of century-long ground observations and Cassini data has shown that Saturn's tidal torque is causing the inner moons' orbits to expand rapidly ([ 10 ][11]). The results require the inner midsize moons—Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, and Dione—to have formed no more than ∼1 to 2 billion years before the present. This is a challenge for model 1, which assumes that both the rings and the moons formed at the time of Saturn's formation, 4.5 billion years ago. It is possible, however, that Saturn's tidal torque was weaker in the past, consistent with formation of the rings and moons at 4.5 billion years ([ 11 ][12]). The latest observations from the Cassini mission provide further constraints on when the rings and moons formed. On the basis of precise gravity measurements, Iess et al. estimate the mass of the rings as ∼0.4 times the mass of the moon Mimas. This value is consistent with a theoretical prediction based on radial diffusion of the ring ([ 12 ][13]). Suppose that the ring was initially massive. In the massive ring, gravitational interactions among the ring particles may create a density wake structure; the wakes cause rapid radial diffusion of the ring and the ring mass decreases with time. Because the wakes become weak as the mass decreases, the diffusion slows down, which means that the ring mass must have been similar to its current small mass for most of its history. Close-up observations of the ring reported by Tiscareno et al. show a hint of the wakes, but no definitive evidence. They found that visible fine structures in the ring are dominated by particle properties (such as regolith character, bulk porosity, and particle size distributions), rather than by the density of the ring particle distribution. More detailed analysis of the complex ring structure is needed to constrain the ring evolution. ![Figure][1]</img> Formation models for Saturn's rings and moons Two main models have been proposed to explain the formation of Saturn's rings and moons. Data from the Cassini mission ([ 1 ][2]–[ 3 ][3]) suggest that the rings formed recently, providing support for model 2. CREDITS: (GRAPHIC) N. CARY/ SCIENCE ; (PHOTOS) NASA/JPL-CALTECH/SPACE SCIENCE INSTITUTE If the diffusion due to the wakes is responsible for the ring evolution, the overall mass of the current ring does not constrain the formation time and initial mass of the ring. Cassini in situ measurements of the interplanetary dust flux over 10 years show that the properties of the light reflected by the rings are not consistent with interplanetary dust contamination for as long as 4.5 billion years. Iess et al. suggest that to be consistent with the observed clean rings, the rings must be as young as ∼10 to 100 million years. Buratti et al. argue that ice particles and water vapor from geysers on Enceladus accrete on the ring moons and probably also the ring particles, hiding past contamination and making them appear younger than they are. Nonetheless, the Cassini observations suggest that the rings are comparatively young. Young rings are more consistent with model 2, provided that the rings are older than the mid-sized moons. Whereas the circumplanetary disk in model 1 existed only during Saturn's formation, the massive ring in model 2 can be formed any time by tidal disruption of a Kuiper Belt object that coincidentally entered the interior of the Roche limit, although the probability of such an encounter would decrease with time ([ 13 ][14]). In model 2, if the impacting object has a rocky core and an icy outer layer, its icy layer would have been selectively stripped ([ 14 ][15]). Precession due to Saturn's ellipticity would have resulted in the formation of a debris torus, and collisions between the debris particles would have ground down the icy debris particles, eventually resulting in the formation of a geometrically thin ring in Saturn's equatorial plane through collision damping ([ 14 ][15]). Because the Roche limit for rock is smaller than that for ice, rocky chunks can survive in the rings. The rocky chunks can then accrete icy particles, consistent with the detailed structure of ring moons reported by Buratti et al. These ring moons eventually diffuse out from the Roche limit and grow through mutual collisions to form mid-size moons ([ 7 ][8]). The moons' orbits expand as a result of Saturn's tidal torque. Model 2 cannot fully explain the orbital configurations of the mid-size moons. According to orbital simulations, Tethys and Dione should have become trapped in an orbital configuration where the ratio of their orbital periods was 2:1 or 3:2 (called a 2:1 or 3:2 resonance) during the tidal orbital expansion to their current orbits (see the figure), but this is inconsistent with their current orbits ([ 15 ][16]). To avoid the trapping, Cuk et al. ([ 8 ][9]) proposed that the orbits of tidally expanding moons became unstable, resulting in mutual collisions that caused them to disintegrate, and that the current moons reaccreted ∼1 billion years ago. This could also account for the high crater density on Mimas's surface, even if Mimas is young. Another possibility to avoid the trapping is the temporary excitation of orbital eccentricity through gravitational perturbations from the original massive ring. The effect of exciting the eccentricity of Enceladus's orbit is to avoid the Dione/Tethys trapping ([ 15 ][16]). Another problem for model 2 is the low probability of an encounter with a Kuiper Belt object less than 2 billion years ago. Such an encounter would have been very rare except during the Solar System formation stage at ∼4.5 billion years ago and the Late Heavy Bombardment era at ∼4 billion years ago ([ 13 ][14]). Detailed astronomical observations from the Gaia spacecraft have started to identify past close encounters between the Solar System and other stars in the Milky Way galaxy; these data will help to constrain the frequency of encounters between Saturn and Kuiper Belt objects. A clear answer to the long-standing question of when and how Saturn's rings formed has not yet been obtained, but the Cassini data provide important pieces of the puzzle. ![Figure][1]</img> A small object, called Peggy, could be a new moon forming on the edge of Saturn's A-ring. PHOTO: NASA/JPL-CALTECH/SPACE SCIENCE INSTITUTE 1. [↵][17]1. M. S. Tiscareno et al ., Science 364, 1054 (2019). [OpenUrl][18] 2. [↵][19]1. B. J. Buratti et al ., Science 364, 1053 (2019). [OpenUrl][20] 3. [↵][21]1. L. Iess et al ., Science 364, 1052 (2019). [OpenUrl][22] 4. [↵][23]1. I. Mosqueira, 2. P. R. Estrada , Icarus 163, 232 (2003). [OpenUrl][24][CrossRef][25][Web of Science][26] 5. [↵][27]1. R. M. Canup, 2. W. R. Ward , Nature 441, 834 (2006). [OpenUrl][28][CrossRef][29][GeoRef][30][PubMed][31][Web of Science][32] 6. [↵][33]1. S. Charnoz et al ., Icarus 216, 535 (2011). [OpenUrl][34][CrossRef][35][GeoRef][36][Web of Science][37] 7. [↵][38]1. A. Crida, 2. S. Charnoz , Science 338, 1196 (2012). [OpenUrl][39][Abstract/FREE Full Text][40] 8. [↵][41]1. M. Ćuk, 2. L. Dones, 3. D. Nevorny , Astrophys. J. 820, 97 (2016). [OpenUrl][42][CrossRef][43] 9. [↵][44]1. R. M. Canup , Nature 468, 943 (2010). [OpenUrl][45][CrossRef][46][GeoRef][47][PubMed][48][Web of Science][49] 10. [↵][50]1. V. Lainey et al ., Icarus 281, 286 (2017). [OpenUrl][51][CrossRef][52] 11. [↵][53]1. J. Fuller, 2. J. Luan, 3. E. Quataert , Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 458, 3867 (2016). [OpenUrl][54][CrossRef][55] 12. [↵][56]1. J. Salmon, 2. S. Charnoz, 3. A. Crida, 4. A. Brahic , Icarus 209, 771 (2010). [OpenUrl][57][CrossRef][58][PubMed][59][Web of Science][60] 13. [↵][61]1. S. Charnoz, 2. A. Morbidelli, 3. L. Dones, 4. J. Salmon , Icarus 199, 413 (2009). [OpenUrl][62][CrossRef][63][GeoRef][64][Web of Science][65] 14. [↵][66]1. R. Hyodo, 2. S. Charnoz, 3. K. Ohtsuki, 4. H. Genda , Icarus 282, 195 (2017). [OpenUrl][67] 15. [↵][68]1. A. Nakajima, 2. S. Ida, 3. J. Kimura, 4. R. Brasser , Icarus 317, 570 (2019). [OpenUrl][69] Acknowledgments: I thank Y. Sekine and R. Hyodo at ELSI for helpful discussions. [1]: pending:yes [2]: #ref-1 [3]: #ref-3 [4]: #ref-2 [5]: #ref-4 [6]: #ref-5 [7]: #ref-6 [8]: #ref-7 [9]: #ref-8 [10]: #ref-9 [11]: #ref-10 [12]: #ref-11 [13]: #ref-12 [14]: #ref-13 [15]: #ref-14 [16]: #ref-15 [17]: #xref-ref-1-1 "View reference 1 in text" [18]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DScience%26rft.volume%253D364%26rft.spage%253D1054%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [19]: #xref-ref-2-1 "View reference 2 in text" [20]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DScience%26rft.volume%253D364%26rft.spage%253D1053%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [21]: #xref-ref-3-1 "View reference 3 in text" [22]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DScience%26rft.volume%253D364%26rft.spage%253D1052%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [23]: #xref-ref-4-1 "View reference 4 in text" [24]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DIcarus%26rft.volume%253D163%26rft.spage%253D232%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1016%252FS0019-1035%252803%252900077-0%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [25]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00077-0&link_type=DOI [26]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000183056400016&link_type=ISI [27]: #xref-ref-5-1 "View reference 5 in text" [28]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNature%26rft.stitle%253DNature%26rft.aulast%253DCanup%26rft.auinit1%253DR.%2BM.%26rft.volume%253D441%26rft.issue%253D7095%26rft.spage%253D834%26rft.epage%253D839%26rft.atitle%253DA%2Bcommon%2Bmass%2Bscaling%2Bfor%2Bsatellite%2Bsystems%2Bof%2Bgaseous%2Bplanets%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1038%252Fnature04860%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F16778883%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [29]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1038/nature04860&link_type=DOI [30]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=2010020448&link_type=GEOREF [31]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=16778883&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F364%2F6445%2F1028.atom [32]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000238254100034&link_type=ISI [33]: #xref-ref-6-1 "View reference 6 in text" [34]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DIcarus%26rft.stitle%253DIcarus%26rft.volume%253D216%26rft.issue%253D2%26rft.spage%253D535%26rft.epage%253D550%26rft.atitle%253DAccretion%2Bof%2BSaturn%2527s%2Bmid-sized%2Bmoons%2Bduring%2Bthe%2Bviscous%2Bspreading%2Bof%2Byoung%2Bmassive%2Brings%253B%2Bsolving%2Bthe%2Bparadox%2Bof%2Bsilicate-poor%2Brings%2Bversus%2Bsilicate-rich%2Bmoons%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1016%252Fj.icarus.2011.09.017%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [35]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1016/j.icarus.2011.09.017&link_type=DOI [36]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=2012049502&link_type=GEOREF [37]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000297568000014&link_type=ISI [38]: #xref-ref-7-1 "View reference 7 in text" [39]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DScience%26rft.stitle%253DScience%26rft.aulast%253DCrida%26rft.auinit1%253DA.%26rft.volume%253D338%26rft.issue%253D6111%26rft.spage%253D1196%26rft.epage%253D1199%26rft.atitle%253DFormation%2Bof%2BRegular%2BSatellites%2Bfrom%2BAncient%2BMassive%2BRings%2Bin%2Bthe%2BSolar%2BSystem%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1126%252Fscience.1226477%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F23197530%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [40]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6Mzoic2NpIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjEzOiIzMzgvNjExMS8xMTk2IjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjM6Ii9zY2kvMzY0LzY0NDUvMTAyOC5hdG9tIjt9czo4OiJmcmFnbWVudCI7czowOiIiO30= [41]: #xref-ref-8-1 "View reference 8 in text" [42]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DAstrophys.%2BJ.%26rft.volume%253D820%26rft.spage%253D97%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.3847%252F0004-637X%252F820%252F2%252F97%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [43]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.3847/0004-637X/820/2/97&link_type=DOI [44]: #xref-ref-9-1 "View reference 9 in text" [45]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNature%26rft.stitle%253DNature%26rft.aulast%253DCanup%26rft.auinit1%253DR.%2BM.%26rft.volume%253D468%26rft.issue%253D7326%26rft.spage%253D943%26rft.epage%253D946%26rft.atitle%253DOrigin%2Bof%2BSaturn%2527s%2Brings%2Band%2Binner%2Bmoons%2Bby%2Bmass%2Bremoval%2Bfrom%2Ba%2Blost%2BTitan-sized%2Bsatellite.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1038%252Fnature09661%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F21151108%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [46]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1038/nature09661&link_type=DOI [47]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=2011019833&link_type=GEOREF [48]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=21151108&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F364%2F6445%2F1028.atom [49]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000285344600042&link_type=ISI [50]: #xref-ref-10-1 "View reference 10 in text" [51]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DIcarus%26rft.volume%253D281%26rft.spage%253D286%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1016%252Fj.icarus.2016.07.014%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [52]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1016/j.icarus.2016.07.014&link_type=DOI [53]: #xref-ref-11-1 "View reference 11 in text" [54]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DMon.%2BNot.%2BR.%2BAstron.%2BSoc.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1093%252Fmnras%252Fstw609%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [55]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1093/mnras/stw609&link_type=DOI [56]: #xref-ref-12-1 "View reference 12 in text" [57]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DIcarus%26rft.volume%253D209%26rft.spage%253D771%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1016%252Fj.icarus.2010.05.030%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F20535205%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [58]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1016/j.icarus.2010.05.030&link_type=DOI [59]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=20535205&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F364%2F6445%2F1028.atom [60]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000282199000044&link_type=ISI [61]: #xref-ref-13-1 "View reference 13 in text" [62]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DIcarus%26rft.stitle%253DIcarus%26rft.volume%253D199%26rft.issue%253D2%26rft.spage%253D413%26rft.epage%253D428%26rft.atitle%253DDid%2BSaturn%2527s%2Brings%2Bform%2Bduring%2Bthe%2Blate%2Bheavy%2Bbombardment%253F%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1016%252Fj.icarus.2008.10.019%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [63]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1016/j.icarus.2008.10.019&link_type=DOI [64]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=2009076622&link_type=GEOREF [65]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000263250600017&link_type=ISI [66]: #xref-ref-14-1 "View reference 14 in text" [67]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DIcarus%26rft.volume%253D282%26rft.spage%253D195%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [68]: #xref-ref-15-1 "View reference 15 in text" [69]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DIcarus%26rft.volume%253D317%26rft.spage%253D570%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx

The origin of Saturn's rings and moons | Science

Space mission and science news, images and videos from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the leading center for robotic exploration of the solar system.Space mission and science news, images and videos from NASA' Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the leading center for robotic exploration of the solar system.

Space Mission and Science News | NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

A new study shows that Saturn's rings are only 10 million to 100 million years old, much younger than the planet itself.A new study shows that Saturn's rings are only 10 million to 100 million years old, much younger than the planet itself.

Saturn's Rings May Have Formed Relatively Recently, Scientists Say : NPR

“Image of Saturn's main rings made by combining data from multiple star occultations using NASA's Cassini ultraviolet imaging spectrograph. (NASA/JPL)”

Antonio Paris on Twitter: "Image of Saturn's main rings made by combining data from multiple star occultations using NASA's Cassini ultraviolet imaging spectrograph. (NASA/JPL)… https://t.co/1clAGamqIF"

NASA’S Cassini space probe has unveiled an incredible amount of detail in Saturn’s complex rings two years after the mission ended, astronomers have announced today.NASA’S Cassini space probe has unveiled an incredible amount of detail in Saturn’s complex rings two years after the mission ended, astronomers have announced today.

NASA Saturn DISCOVERY: Latest Cassini results reveal incredible detail in Saturn's rings | Science | News | Express.co.uk

They're the solar system's most iconic feature, but how and when Saturn's rings formed have remained a mystery for centuries.They're the solar system's most iconic feature, but how and when Saturn's rings formed have remained a mystery for centuries.

Saturn's rings were likely sculpted by its moons, NASA study said

Saturn's rings are a complex mix of stripes, speckled textures and other odd features that appear to be sculpted by the planet's moons.Saturn's rings are a complex mix of stripes, speckled textures and other odd features that appear to be sculpted by the planet's moons.

Saturn's rings — and their propellers, waves, speckles and secrets — come into focus with Cassini's final images - Science News - ABC News